From Submarine Blueprints to Intricate Fruit: Digital Collections of Historic Images, Science and Medicine

Library collections often extend far beyond just books and journals, and today’s digital collections offer free access to all types of multimedia.  Online collections from the Library of Congress include photos/prints, manuscripts, video, audio, maps, and even archived websites. One of my favorite types of digital collections are historic images in the science and medicine field.  It can be fascinating to see catalog images for intricate machines from a century ago, infographics from the 1950s about medical careers, or beautifully detailed watercolors of plants.  Here are a few of my favorite places to look for historic science and medicine image collections:

Library of Congress Digital Collections (Science and Technology) – View 19 collections, such as Architecture, Design & Engineering Drawings. This collection “covers about 40,000 drawings (described in more than 3,900 catalog records), spanning 1600 to 1989” and includes a wide range of architectural and engineering designs, such as a submarine design from 1806.

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[Submarine (“Submarine Vessel, Submarine Bombs and Mode of Attack”) for the United States government. Cock cavity and wheel details for “plunging boat”]
National Library of Medicine Digital Collections – I recommend exploring the almost 70,000 images within the Images from the History of Medicine collection.  Browse health-related advertisements, educational material, images of patients and healthcare professionals, medical illustrations, etc. from before 1600 to the present.  For example, check out this infographic from 1957 about the growing field of health service occupations.

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Health service occupations: a growing field of employment for both men and women

Smithsonian Libraries Digital Collections – One of my favorite collections, which I first became familiar with when hunting for online trade literature collections for patent searches, is the Instruments for Science, 1800-1914 collection.  This collection lets you browse through catalogs for scientific instruments and machinery from over a century ago.  Here’s an instrument called a “Moist Chamber” from an 1899 catalog, which was used to “keep a muscle and nerve preparation damp during the experiment” (yikes).

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Moist Chamber (pg 29)

United States Department of Agriculture Special Collections – Some science images are absolute works of art, like the watercolors of fruits and nuts from the USDA Pomological Watercolor Collection.  This painting of strawberries from 1914 is one beautiful example.

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Fragaria: Pine Apple

This is only just scratching the surface of online image collections…if you have a lot of time to kill, visit the British Library Flickr page, which offers over a million public domain images scanned from old books.

Legacy of Beall’s List: Ongoing Efforts to Identify Predatory Journals

The sudden disappearance of Beall’s List of potential, possible, or probable predatory scholarly open-access publishers was one of the more dramatic sagas I’ve come across in the scientific publishing/librarian fields.  Here’s a bare-bones timeline of the story (cobbled together from No More ‘Beall’s List’ by Carl Straumsheim, Beall’s article What I learned from predatory publishers, and the Wikipedia page on predatory open-access publishing):

  • between 2008 and 2010: Jeffery Beall, librarian and researcher at University of Colorado Denver, first posted his list of predatory publishers on the Posterous blog platform.
  • January 2012: Beall launched a blog called Scholarly Open Access that listed predatory publishers/journals and also offered criticism of scholarly open-access publishing.
  • August 2012: Beall posted his criteria for evaluating publishers.
  • February 2013: Beall added a process for a publisher to appeal their inclusion in the list.
  • 2013: OMICS publishing group threatened to sue Beall for $1 billion for including them on the list (this threat obviously wasn’t successful, since the list lived on for another 4 years).
  • January 17, 2017: The list was taken offline.  Beall describes his reasons for taking down the list in his article What I learned from predatory publishers:

In January 2017, facing intense pressure from my employer, the University of Colorado Denver, and fearing for my job, I shut down the blog and removed all its content from the blog platform.

So that’s the story in a nutshell.  Beall’s List was highly controversial (angering both open-access publishers included on the list and some open-access advocates), but it was also incredibly useful, with many researchers and librarians using the list as an authoritative resource to identify predatory journals to avoid publishing in and using for research.

Thankfully, there are still ongoing efforts to identify predatory journals and guide researchers towards high-quality, reputable journals for publishing and research.  Many of these efforts utilize or build on Beall’s work.  Here are a few ways Beall’s legacy lives on:

  • Archived versions of Beall’s List: Some LibGuides and blogs link to or post archived versions of the list. A site called Beall’s List of Predatory Journals and Publishers (hosted on Weebly) also appears to be built from archived versions of Beall’s List.
  • Active updates of Beall’s List: The website Stop Predatory Journals seeks to continue updating Beall’s list through a collaborative community effort.  It’s unclear if this page is still regularly updated, though, since the last post on the homepage is from February 10, 2017.
  • Cabell’s Predatory Journal Blacklist (subscription tool): A Nature.com article titled Pay-to-view blacklist of predatory journals set to launch describes the new subscription-based predatory journal blacklist from scholarly-services firm Cabell’s International. Rick Anderson at The Scholarly Kitchen offers a detailed review of Cabell’s list.
  • Guidelines for Avoiding Predatory Journals: The website Thinkchecksubmit.org provides guidelines and resources for researchers to help them identify reputable journals where they can safely publish their work.

Are there other ways researchers and librarians are working to identify and avoid predatory publishers?  Let me know in the comments or on Twitter!

Takeaways from MLA 2017

I just attended my first Medical Library Association (MLA) Annual Meeting (this year in Seattle, WA), and I came away with a lot of great new ideas, resources, and news from the health sciences information field.  I’m still trying to absorb everything I’ve seen and learned over the past few days, but here’s a quick list of some of my most interesting takeaways from the conference:

  • Open Access Biomedical Journals – The vendor hall offered me the opportunity to explore the online tools and publications available from a variety of biomedical publishers, and I checked around for any open access resources they offered.  A few open access publications and resources I came across include:
  • Data Resources – 
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New data resources portal from NNLM.
  • LibGuides to ExploreI find LibGuides very useful, so I kept an eye out during the poster sessions for any interesting projects related to LibGuides. Two fantastic LibGuides I learned about:
    • Mobile Resources for Health from the University of Florida – Learn about health-related apps, ranging from apps for healthcare professionals (clinical apps, administrative/productivity apps, E-journal and literature database apps, etc.) to apps for patient education.  The LibGuide is mobile-friendly, so learn about healthcare apps on your phone!
    • Disability Resource Guide Disability Resource Guide from University of Illinois – Learn about a variety of physical and mental disabilities, including depictions of the disability in popular literature and media, web/reference/academic resources, and common assistive technologies related to the disability.
  • New Online Learning Portal for MLA – The Medical Library Association recently launched MEDLIB-ED, an online education portal for health information professionals where users can “find, complete, track, and claim credit for educational activities.”  A free competencies self-assessment is available where users can learn about the newly revised MLA Competencies for Lifelong Learning and Professional Success, rate their skills, and use the ratings to plan professional development.
  • Product Updates from National Library of Medicine (NLM) – The NLM provided updates about a number of their free online tools, including:

These are just a few of my favorite highlights, but check Twitter for #MLAnet2017 for more updates and insights on the conference!

Finding Open Access Institutional Repositories

The NLM Technical Bulletin recently published a post describing how PubMed now includes links to full text of articles available through institutional repositories.  This is fantastic news, since this feature expands the possible open access resources for locating full text of indexed articles on PubMed beyond PubMed Central and publisher websites.  Institutional repositories are often overlooked treasures brimming with open access resources, including full-text journal articles (often preprint), theses, and other research output published by students and faculty at the institutions.

OpenScholarship.org defines institutional repositories as:

Digital collections of the outputs created within a university or research institution. Whilst the purposes of repositories may vary (for example, some universities have teaching/learning repositories for educational materials), in most cases they are established to provide Open Access to the institution’s research output.

So how can you find institutional repositories?  My two favorite resources are:

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Search for repositories on OpenDOAR.
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Homepage of ROAR.

OpenDOAR and ROAR have similar search and browsing features, but ROAR seems to have a larger collection of repository listings to search through.  I also prefer ROAR because it uses Library of Congress Classification to categorize repositories in its collection by subject.

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ROAR uses LOC classification, how can a librarian resist?

If you want to learn more about open access repositories, check out the academic LibGuide Open Access Repositories – UC Santa Barbara Library.  Repository66.org also has a neat visualization of repositories on a global map.  If anyone knows any additional useful institutional repository resources, please share!