The (Eventual) Digitization of Pre-1978 Copyright Records

Copyright is an incredibly important form of intellectual property in the US that protects “original works of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression”, ranging from artwork and novels to computer software and architecture.  Copyright can also be an enormous pain to search, especially if you’re looking for pre-1978 copyright registrations. You very well may need to search for pre-1978 copyright registrations, since works originally copyrighted after 1922 and renewed before 1978 “have been automatically extended to last for a total term of 95 years” (learn more about copyright duration here).  Basically, a work published in 1923 could still have an active copyright today.

If you’re searching for a post-1978 copyright registration, you can check the online Copyright Catalog.  The search interface doesn’t have a lot of bells and whistles, but you can at least search by keyword, title, claimant, organization, etc. and quickly browse through lists of results.

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Searching the online Copyright Catalog for Disney’s Moana.

You don’t have nearly as much luck if you need to search pre-1978 registrations.  Here are the options that I’m aware of:

  • Search the copyright card catalog (which contains approximately 45 million cards covering 1870 through 1977) onsite in the Copyright Public Records Reading Room at the Library of Congress. If you don’t live near Washington DC, this may be tricky.
  • Try browsing digitized versions of the Catalog of Copyright Entries (CCE).  The University of Pennsylvania has an excellent guide on locating digitized historic registration records. The Internet Archive has a collection of digitized Catalogs of Copyright Entries from July 1891 through December 1977.  You can keyword search within individual volumes thanks to OCR’ed text, but I couldn’t find a way to keyword search across the text of all volumes at once. (Note: The Copyright Office states “The CCE does not contain all registration updates and does not contain entries for recorded documents, including assignments, and should not be used as the only reference.”)
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Digitized Catalog of Copyright Entries on the Internet Archives.

Thankfully, the US Copyright Office is in the midst of a massive digitization project that will eventually “provide web-access to the pre-1978 Copyright registration records.”  The Project Goals page gives an update on the current status of the project:

In 2014-2015 the Copyright Office completed the digitization of pre-1978 records for preservation. The Office is now capturing pre-1978 digital content and is moving towards integrating the content and card images into the existing online record.

There’s no estimated completion date for the project, and knowing the speed at which government works, it may be a few years before we see the pre-1978 records integrated into the online Copyright Catalog.  At least the project is moving along (although it does concern me that the Project Blog link no longer works!).  Kudos to the Library of Congress and US Copyright Office for undertaking this enormous task, and hopefully the project will help librarians more easily identify copyright status of older works in the future.

Takeaways from MLA 2017

I just attended my first Medical Library Association (MLA) Annual Meeting (this year in Seattle, WA), and I came away with a lot of great new ideas, resources, and news from the health sciences information field.  I’m still trying to absorb everything I’ve seen and learned over the past few days, but here’s a quick list of some of my most interesting takeaways from the conference:

  • Open Access Biomedical Journals – The vendor hall offered me the opportunity to explore the online tools and publications available from a variety of biomedical publishers, and I checked around for any open access resources they offered.  A few open access publications and resources I came across include:
  • Data Resources – 
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New data resources portal from NNLM.
  • LibGuides to ExploreI find LibGuides very useful, so I kept an eye out during the poster sessions for any interesting projects related to LibGuides. Two fantastic LibGuides I learned about:
    • Mobile Resources for Health from the University of Florida – Learn about health-related apps, ranging from apps for healthcare professionals (clinical apps, administrative/productivity apps, E-journal and literature database apps, etc.) to apps for patient education.  The LibGuide is mobile-friendly, so learn about healthcare apps on your phone!
    • Disability Resource Guide Disability Resource Guide from University of Illinois – Learn about a variety of physical and mental disabilities, including depictions of the disability in popular literature and media, web/reference/academic resources, and common assistive technologies related to the disability.
  • New Online Learning Portal for MLA – The Medical Library Association recently launched MEDLIB-ED, an online education portal for health information professionals where users can “find, complete, track, and claim credit for educational activities.”  A free competencies self-assessment is available where users can learn about the newly revised MLA Competencies for Lifelong Learning and Professional Success, rate their skills, and use the ratings to plan professional development.
  • Product Updates from National Library of Medicine (NLM) – The NLM provided updates about a number of their free online tools, including:

These are just a few of my favorite highlights, but check Twitter for #MLAnet2017 for more updates and insights on the conference!

Visualizing Library Data in Socrata and Tableau

I decided it was time to experiment with Tableau again, and what better way to practice than using data from my local public library system, Montgomery County Public Libraries?  Locating MCPL data was almost as fun as using Tableau, since I was able to learn about and experiment with another data sharing and visualization tool called Socrata.

Socrata is a cloud-based platform that government organizations can use to host and share public data sets.  Montgomery County uses Socrata to power dataMontgomery, where I found a data set called Gov Stat MCPL Spreadsheet, listing Montgomery County Public Library performance measures.  The Socrata platform offers tools for filtering, sorting, visualizing, and exporting data sets, so I was able to filter and visualize the data in charts (like actual and projected numbers of “attendance of library programs” by fiscal year, displayed in a line graph).

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Data visualization in Socrata (actual and projected numbers of “attendance of library programs” by fiscal year).

I was also able to export the full data set to a CSV file in Socrata, which I then saved to Excel and uploaded to Tableau to practice creating a dashboard.  In my first Tableau viz I used the Story format (basically, a slide show of graphs and charts).  For my second viz, I decided to try the Dashboard format, where I can organize multiple charts on a single screen.  I created four charts but was only able to fit two of the charts comfortably on the dashboard screen (“Actual and Projected Attendance” and “Use of Library Services and Website”).  Here’s the completed viz, Service Usage and Attendance at Montgomery County Public Libraries (MCPL).

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My second Tableau viz.

I love experimenting with Tableau, but the best part of this exercise was learning about the data sharing and visualization capabilities of Socrata.  A quick Google search for “Socrata government data” shows that many local and state governments use Socrata to share data sets with the public (for example, Baltimore and Hawaii).  Federal government institutions also use Socrata to share data sets, like the open data catalog for the Institute of Museum and Library Services or NASA’s open data portal.  It’s a promising sign that both local and federal governments are making it a priority to openly share data with researchers and the general public, so anyone can use the data in new and creative ways.

Searching Databases with the 5 Senses: Beyond Searching with Words

The intellectual property search field really opened my eyes to how database searching isn’t just limited to keyword searches.  Sometimes, you need to go beyond searching only with words…you can search by drawing chemical structures to find patents mentioning similar compounds, or you can find similar designs or logos through a reverse image search.  If searching with visual elements is possible, then is there also technology that allows people to search through a database using other physical senses? Here are a few examples of tools allowing users to search by visual, auditory, tactile, taste, and scent criteria:

  • Sight – This is the easy one…reverse image searching is very common, especially using Google Images.  For Google, it’s as simple as uploading a photo or entering a URL for an image to find a list of matching or similar images.  The Pinterest Visual Search Tool has the added interesting feature of allowing you to zoom in and only search for a specific part of an image. Check out this video and presentation When image, colour and texture is content: the potential of visual search for an interesting case study of making 3 million designs from the

    UK Board of Trade Design Register visually searchable.

     

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    Visual search tool on Pinterest.

  • Hearing – Technology to search by sound also seems to be relatively established, with apps like “Soundhound (previously Midomi), Doreso and others […] using a simple algorithm to match an acoustic fingerprint to a song in a library.”  Of course, Google also has its own sound search app.
  • Touch – For tactile search to exist, first we would need computer screens that allow users to “feel” specific textures and sensations.  Haptic engineering (according to Discover magazine) “focuses on applying tactile stimulation to our interactions with computers”, and this engineering field may lead to a future where we can search for and share textures and sensations with each other online.  I was only able to find one example of actual tactile search technology in a fascinating paper describing Twech: A Mobile Platform to Search and Share Visuo-tactile Experiences.
  • Taste/Smell – I wish Google Nose really existed, but unfortunately that was just a brilliant April Fool’s joke.  Searching by actual taste and smell doesn’t seem to be a realistic technology yet, but some databases do exist where users can search for the chemical components behind flavors and scents.  For example, BitterDB allows users to search “over 550 compounds that were reported to taste bitter to humans.”  You can also search for perfumes by “notes”, like citrus smells, flowers, woods, mosses, and more.

The technology is already available for image and sound-based searching, and we may soon be able to share and search tactile sensations over mobile devices.  I still look forward to the day when I can search for anything tasting like banana pancakes through Google…I’m sure that day is closer than we expect.

How can health science librarians get involved in big data?

The following reflection was written for the online class Big Data in Healthcare: Exploring Emerging Roles, a fantastic free course provided by the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM).

Enormous data sets containing a broad variety of information produced at high velocity are transforming the healthcare field.  This “big data” is being used for clinical research, patient diagnosis and treatment, analysis of public health trends, and in many other innovative ways to move healthcare into a new era of highly personalized medicine.  Patients provide the health data, programmers and data scientists create new tools to manipulate the data, and clinicians and other healthcare professionals consult and analyze the data.  Health science librarians may wonder what roles they can play in this daunting but incredibly important new domain.  Librarians can use their specialized skills to fill three key roles in the big data field: they can act a liaisons between healthcare professionals and programmers, they can act as advocates for patients, and they can act as educators for patients and healthcare professionals.

Librarians regularly perform reference interviews and user needs assessments to determine the information and programming needs of their patrons, and these skills can help librarians become effective liaisons between healthcare professionals and programmers who create tools to manipulate big data.  In the presentation The Triple Aim at the Front Lines: Lessons from a VA Experience in using data to drive change, Dr. Nick Meo describes how in order to create more effective data tools for physicians, programmers need to know how frontline physicians are using these tools in their everyday practice.  Librarians can be the intermediaries in this situation.  After performing reference interviews, focus groups, and other forms of needs assessments with healthcare professionals, the librarian can then work with programmers to create data tools that fit the information needs and diagnostic/treatment processes of the healthcare team.

Librarians can also act as advocates for patients, by learning about patient concerns related to use of their personal health data and communicating these concerns to both the programmers and healthcare professionals.  In the article A ‘green button’ for using aggregate patient data at the point of care, Christopher Longhurst, Robert Harrington, and Nigam Shah suggest a change to HIPAA, so that it will be “acceptable for front-line clinicians to use aggregate patient data, even if identified, for the purpose of treating a similar patient under their care” (1233).  This idea may make aggregated patient data more easily accessible to clinicians, but how would patients feel about their personal health data being used in this manner?  Librarians can work with patients to gain their viewpoints on possible new uses for health data like the suggested “green button”, and patients may reveal ethical, privacy, or security concerns that programmers and healthcare professionals had not previously considered.

Finally, librarians can act as educators for both healthcare professionals and patients to demonstrate the value of utilizing big data in healthcare. Harlan Krumholz describes in the article Big data and new knowledge in medicine: the thinking, training, and tools needed for a learning health system how healthcare professionals will need to change their viewpoints about best practices for research in order to fully embrace big data.  Librarians can begin changing viewpoints by presenting healthcare professionals with concrete examples of how big data has been used to improve patient care, as well as training resources for learning more about data science.  Librarians can also promote participation for patients within big data initiatives, by explaining how the projects will benefit public health.  For instance, librarians can explain to patients and the general public how participation in the All of Us Research Program may improve personalized medicine for current and future generations.

Health science librarians don’t need advanced programming skills or a medical degree as a prerequisite to work with big data.  Librarians already possess valuable communication and training skills which will make them effective liaisons between patients, healthcare professionals, and programmers who contribute to generating, analyzing, and creating tools for big data.

Online Health Resources in Amharic

I recently took the class Health and Wellness @ the Library: The Essentials of Providing Consumer Health Services, a free online course available through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM), and the final project provided the option to create a “pathfinder” of online health information for a specific audience.  I decided to create a pathfinder to help local library staff, healthcare professionals, and community leaders locate reliable health resources for community members who primarily speak Amharic in Silver Spring, Maryland.  There is a large Ethiopian American community living in the Silver Spring area, many of whom speak Amharic, so I thought this pathfinder would be particularly relevant to my local community.

Amharic-Language Consumer Health Materials (Located through English-Language Websites)

EthnoMed Amharic Resources (https://ethnomed.org/patient-education/amharic): A website from Harborview Medical Center linking to health and cultural information related to immigrant and refugee groups. Browse through a list of Amharic patient education materials, organized alphabetically by title. Linked materials include both documents and videos.  Topics cover a range of chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, asthma, heart disease, HIV, and hepatitis, as well as general wellness, women’s health, healthcare communication, and medication safety information.

Health Navigator Amharic Health Information (https://www.healthnavigator.org.nz/languages/a/amharic/): A website overseen by the Health Navigator Charitable Trust in New Zealand.  Resources are listed under an alphabetical list of health topics, including important common topics like children’s health, women’s health, mental health, sexual health, oral health, immunizations, accessing healthcare, asthma, diabetes, heart health, and more.  Formats include PDFs and HTML websites.

Health Translations Amharic Resources (http://www.healthtranslations.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcht.nsf/PresentMultilingualResource?Open&x=&s=Amharic): An online directory created by the Victorian Government of Australia to provide consumer health information in multiple languages. Browse through an alphabetical list of health topics to view Amharic health resources related to each topic.  Most resources seem to be in PDF format. Topics with large collections of resources include cancer, nutrition, HIV/AIDS, infections, mental health, and parenting.

HealthReach Amharic Resources (https://healthreach.nlm.nih.gov/searchresults?keywords=&btnsearch=Search&category=1&country=&population=&language=Amharic&format=&user=&records=10): A database of health information in multiple languages from the US National Library of Medicine. Browse through over 60 results, including document, video, and audio resources.  Enter search terms to narrow results by topic.  Resources from toolkits covering a wide range of refugee and immigrant health topics (including “Safe, Smart and Healthy – Keys to Success in Your New Home” series and “Health and Wellbeing” series) are available, as well as patient materials related to bed bugs, women’s health, children’s health, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and a Zika fact sheet.

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Video about medical care and health insurance in Amharic, located through HealthReach.

King County Information translated in Amharic (http://www.kingcounty.gov/depts/health/languages/amharic.aspx): Translated health materials from King County, WA.  Download videos, posters, handouts, and comic strips in Amharic, organized under topics related to children’s health, communicable diseases, emergency preparedness, and environmental health.

MedlinePlus Health Information in Amharic (amarunya) (https://medlineplus.gov/languages/amharic.html): Consumer health portal from the National Library of Medicine. Browse a list of Amharic resource links (mostly in PDF format) organized under an alphabetical list of health topics, including emergency preparedness, diabetes, tuberculosis, and more.

Minnesota Department of Health Amharic Translated Materials (http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/translation/amharic.html):  Translated health information from the Minnesota Department of Health.  Browse Amharic handouts (available as PDFs) on topics including emergency preparedness, flu, immunizations, prenatal/postpartum depression, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis.

Multicultural Health Communication Amharic Resources (http://www.mhcs.health.nsw.gov.au/publicationsandresources/pdf/language-1/amharic#b_start=0): Database of multilingual health resources from the New South Wales (Australia) Ministry of Health. Browse resources available in Amharic and filter by health topic or resource type (including PDFs, audio, video, or website).  Health topics include women’s health, children’s health, nutrition, and common infectious diseases.

Local Resources

Ethiopian Community Center in Maryland (http://ethioccmd.org/):  An organization located in Silver Spring which provides health information, seminars, workshops, health screenings, and medical referrals to the local Ethiopian community.

Gilchrist Immigrant Resource Center (http://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/gilchrist/): Find links and referrals for immigrants in Montgomery County, including healthcare-related referrals.

Learning Tableau

Creating interactive visualizations of data to tell a story is a great skill to have, but what if you don’t have programming skills?  I fall in the non-programmer boat (although hopefully I can fix that knowledge gap this year by learning R), but fortunately there are a ton of free online visualization tools, many of which don’t require programming knowledge.  Tableau is one option for creating free or low-cost interactive visualizations of large data sets using a drag-and-drop interface.

What is Tableau?

Tableau is data visualization software that includes both subscription and free versions.  The free version of the software is called Tableau Public.  Through Tableau Public, users can download the Tableau Desktop Public Edition app, upload and clean data, create visualizations, and then save and store visualizations (called “vizzes”) to your Tableau Public Profile.  You get 10GB of space in your Public Profile, and vizzes can be shared and embedded on websites and blogs.

How Can Libraries Use Tableau?

A quick search of Tableau Public shows some academic libraries using Tableau to create dashboards of library usage statistics (see Library Assessment for UMass Amherst Libraries or LibraryViz@OSU for Ohio State University Libraries).  Public libraries (like Brooklyn Public Libraries) may use a subscription version of the tool for indepth usage analytics and decision making.

Getting Started

For my first Tableau visualization, I decided to use a relatively large data set downloaded from PillBox.  PillBox is a database from the National Library of Medicine and can be used to identify unknown pills and capsules by visual indicators like color, shape, and size.  I wanted to explore the pill shapes, colors, and distributors for pills containing the active ingredient Acetaminophen.

My first (rather rough) attempt at a Tableau visualization can be found here.

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Visit the full visualization.

I mostly just figured out how to use the interface through trial and error and Googling any questions I had about the tool (there’s a large and active user base for the software, thankfully).  The Tableau website also offers some basic tutorial videos.

A few random thoughts:

  • I had trouble using Tableau Desktop Public Edition app on my Dell, since the Dell Backup and Recovery program interfered with the app.  I had to uninstall Dell Backup and Recovery to get Tableau to work.
  • Now that Google has gotten in the data visualization game with Google Data Studio, Tableau better up it’s game.  Here’s a comparison of Google Data Studio and Tableau I found interesting.